New – a comprehensive summary in pdf form for your PC or Kindle. Please share this widely as this website is blocked in New Zealand
NB Within 24 hours I lodged a complaint with Disqus over Whaleoil deleting and then impersonating me. The email below addresses the move by Finlayson to shut down criticism of judges – i.e covering for his and Collin’s extensive involvement covering up the Kenderdine fraud.
Email to Slater
Slater replies within a couple of minutes and lies from his bully pulpit
Slater visits http://newzealandjusticeandpolitics.weebly.com/
Earlier engagement with Cameron Slater on Whaleoil regarding Kenderdine -see Zorro
Slater was fully aware of the Kenderdine fraud
In 2009 Attorney General Chris Finlayson appointed Barber as an acting district court judge to help reduce caseloads in the civil and criminal courts.
He would have been 72 at the time – two years older than the mandatory retirement age for judges in New Zealand.
However, under section 10 of the District Courts Act 1947 a former judge who has reached the age of 70 years may be appointed for a period of up to one year, or for two or more periods not exceeding four years in the aggregate. But Section 10 also specifies that each appointment must not exceed one year if the person is 72-years-old as in Barber’s case.
The Commonwealth legal fraternity has been informed of the corruption inflicted on New Zealand.
Finlayson and his cronies have been outed. The two New Zealand spy agencies are charged with keeping the Turitea fraud under the radar. Look at who is in charge.
“Journalism is printing what someone else does not want printed: everything else is public relations,” George Orwell.
The Turitea fraud – key points – see essay below
1. The media co-opted into defrauding our city – reporters fear for their jobs if they transgress Fairfax’s political stance
3. Environmental desecration on an epic scale to “save the planet”
4. Judicial fraud by Shonagh Kenderdine with the connivance of the Attorney-General Chris Finlayson and knowledge of all NZ govt Cabinet Ministers. Huge, illegal and corrupt payments made to participants, in particular Kenderdine, paid to pretend she was a judge. Kenderdine contravened both the Crimes Act Part 6
The Crimes Act 1961 part 6 contains criminal offences related to, amongst other things, the corrupt use of official information and the corruption and bribery of:
- the Judiciary
- ministers of the Crown
- members of Parliament
- law enforcement officers
- public officials.
and the Secret Commissions Act 1910. Maximum penalties range from 7 to 14 years in jail. The collusion by Karen Price, the supervision of this crime by Attorney-General Finlayson and Minister Nick Smith, the cover-up by Judith Collins, the perjury by Mark Henry and Douglas Heffernan would additionally put them and others behind bars.
The rule of law also forms a significant part of the New Zealand constitution. The principles of the rule of law are not easily defined but encompass ideas such as:
- the powers exercised by parliamentarians and officials are based on legal authority;
- a person should not be deprived of his or her liberty, status or other substantial interest without the opportunity of a fair hearing before an impartial court or tribunal.
- The theoretical purity spouted by the Ministry of Justice
5. Scandalous cronyism – involving lawyer Karen Price, who will clip the carbon trading ticket [including for PNCC], and securities fraud by those handling the Mighty River Power IPO
6. The pervasive, pernicious influence of the UN – the Turitea farce originates from former NZ Prime Minister Helen Clark
7. Non science based obsession with harmless CO2. President Trump is kicking this fraud to the curb. IPCC abandons the scientific method
8. Fraud on Mighty River Power investors by multiple parties and government agencies
9. Earthquake “denial” – the Turitea and Puketoi wind farms and substations and pylons”approved” right on top of three of the country’s major fault lines – the Wellington, Northern Ohariu and Wairarapa faults [Makuri-Waewaepa]
10. The NZ judicial system and legal profession a cesspit
Read it here – full supporting links provided
THE ESSAY ABOVE HAS BEEN REVIEWED BY A VERY SENIOR AND RESPECTED NZ PUBLIC SERVANT WHO COMMENTED THAT IT WAS “SOBERING AND ALARMING”
[Includes the corrupt role played by Karen Price of law firm ChanceryGreen and her mentor, ally and supervisor, Helen Clark, after the position of United Nations Secretary-General]
Clark addressing the UN in a futile effort to persuade them she is an “untainted” candidate. The NZ Herald advances 10 reasons she failed , blissfully unaware that the indisputable facts on this website showing her Turitea corruption were viewed multiple times by her opponents.
Hillary Clinton, the most corrupt, criminal candidate to ever to run for the White House is a bosom buddy of Helen Clark’s. Clark’s name appears in the Wikileaks Clinton emails. The NZ govt funded her campaign to be Secretary General. Prosecutions loom for the Clinton Foundation fraudsters
The New Zealand Government anxious to buy access to a Clinton crime syndicate led Globalist, NWO administration contributed $7.7 million to the Clinton Foundation with a promise of a further $6 million
Ex Prime Minister John Key submitting to Hillary Clinton
You are free to publish/repost/link the above document to your website
Now featured here
Update  to the document above. The judgement against the Friends of The Turitea Reserve Incorporated v Palmerston North City Council [July 2007] was withheld from litigants but discovered online 28 April 2016. It’s no surprise why. [ NB the Judge in this case is David Baragwanath who as a young prosecutor worked with lawyer John Henry in trying to keep Arthur Allan Thomas locked up for a murder he did not commit] Baragwanath was knighted in 2011. The judgement linked below is now available on the Ministry for Justice website. but you need to search for it.
Update  to the document above. The Government got Google to delete www.palmerstonnorth.blogspot.com in 2010. This illegality, discovered April, 2016 is recorded on the internet archive.
Update  to the document above. Link  in the document leads to a RadioLive interview where MRP CEO Heffernan lies to the NZ public about the wind farm. The audio has been deliberately disabled. All you need is here.
NB. Heffernan passes GO and collects $500,000
Update  to the document above. This video [July 2014], recently recovered [1/8/2016], shows how the New Zealand Law Society covered up criminality and fraud by Shonagh Kenderdine and her government supervisors. The last 3 years of her “professional” history were “disappeared.” The web site featured here no longer exists [is that a surprise?]
Update  to the document above. After being hauled before the Law Society Karen Price’s reputation is so toxic to ChanceryGreen, the Law firm she owned, that she sold it in September 2016 but acts as a consultant to it.
Note: several links in the document above no longer work but the documents referred to however are available on this website.
Here come I, t’is Kenderdine
I am Mistress of this Court
No warrant needed, just a gown
So suck it up, you peasant clowns
Glass ceilings I hit many times
The scars that left, well they are mine
Tokens of thanks from Mother Earth
Whose crags and valleys my face reflects
But smoothed by funds from those I served
And gongs on walls well reinforced
By the very bullshit I enforced
The indisputable proof of judicial and government corruption and malfeasance.
Sir David Gascoigne, Judicial Conduct Commissioner.
Click to enlarge.
Gascoigne lied about Kenderdine’s immunity from prosecution. Not only did Kenderdine break the Secret Commissions act 1910 but the Crimes Act 1961 which is specific concerning crimes by the judiciary
The Turitea Final Decision is illegal and corrupt.
Kenderdine, global warming fanatic, “a judge for hire” was fraudulently passing herself off as a judge when she had been permanently removed from the judiciary on 6 August 2010 and had not held a warrant for 13 months before the Final Decision was issued on 6 September 2011.
Kenderdine lies about her time as a judge on her website as she touts for business. Unbelievable arrogance and an own goal!
Kenderdine deletes her website, August 2016
ORIGINAL HERE, OR SEE ABOVE
Nick Smith’s deep involvement in the Turitea wind farm fraud
NO REPLY FROM SMITH TO THE ABOVE
Mighty River Power knives the “pre-conditioned” city in the back
MRP’s full submission see P36
MRP Submission and Archive
FOR A SUMMARY OF EVENTS MADE EARLIER VISIT
FOR A SUMMARY OF LEGAL ISSUES VISIT
COMPLAINT LAID WITH THE NEW ZEALAND LAW SOCIETY
UPDATE FINAL VERSION
Attorney-General Finlayson is above the law and supervised Kenderdine’s crime spree
Kenderdine’s term as Chair of the Historic Places Trust expired in July 2013 but as of May 22 2014 she was still there under Finlayson’s “protection” by fraudulently, illegally and secretly extending her term.
“He has also used his executive powers to make more High Court applications seeking litigants be prevented court access on grounds they are vexatious than in the prior 60 years.”
This bodes poorly for anyone challenging this fraud and corruption. Expect to be silenced.
Napoleon seized the crown from the Pope and Finlayson gave himself a QC warrant. You just couldn’t make this **** up
On 13 December 2012, Finlayson recommended himself for appointment as Queen’s Counsel by the Governor-General, based on his role as Attorney-General.
After Finlayson was challenged over his involvement in this fraud the link to the page, screencapped below, which was sent to him 26 August 2013 [See letter below or this link] was deleted from the Government’s Ministry for Culture and Heritage website.
It was saved however 17 times on the internet archive.
Inerasable additional proof
Finlayson totally fails to obey the explicit directives in the Cabinet Manual setting out his duties as Attorney-General
Role of Attorney-General
Law officer role
4.3The Attorney-General has particular responsibility for maintaining the rule of law. The Attorney-General has a responsibility to notify Cabinet of any proposals or government actions that do not comply with existing law and to propose action to remedy such matters.
Link between the judiciary and the government
4.8The Attorney-General is the link between the judiciary and executive government. The Attorney-General recommends the appointment of judges and has an important role in defending the judiciary by answering improper and unfair public criticism, and discouraging ministerial colleagues from criticising judges and their decisions.
Did Finlayson provide a legal basis endorsing the Kenderdine fraud? No, he most certainly did not. See correspondence below
Kenderdine got paid [took bribes] for being a fake judge. So what exactly does the SECRET COMMISSIONS ACT have to say about that??
A person who commits an offence against this Act is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years.
Finlayson, as Attorney-General, removed Kenderdine’s warrant and her name from the judicial roll but to this day covers up fraud and corruption.
Kenderdine NOT a judge and Governor-General Satyanand her one time colleague knew this full well.
The lies continue on the MFE website.
Kenderdine’s lies exposed by Marlborough District Council, August 1 2013.
Kenderdine’s corrupt farce, based on IPCC climate “models”, is ripped up in the AR5 summary of likely outcomes. Polar bears and sea level rise don’t even make the list. Are politicians going to tell the truth?
Below is a sample of documentation.
Now if you want to commit a crime and don’t want to get caught this is what you do:
1/ Become a member of Parliament.
2/ Claim immunity when you pretend to be a judge
3/ Circle the wagons with your mates’ help. Look the other way when they break the law to line your pockets – see 5th November letter.
4/ Ignore all the key issues raised.
5/ Get Google, the NZSIS and the GCSB to cover your backside.
Finlayson, Attorney-General, is unfit to hold public office
The legal definition of collusion:
“An agreement between two or more people to defraud a person of his or her rights or to obtain something that is prohibited by law.
A secret arrangement wherein two or more people whose legal interests seemingly conflict conspire to commit Fraud upon another person; a pact between two people to deceive a court with the purpose of obtaining something that they would not be able to get through legitimate judicial channels.”
The only response ever received from Finlayson
Judith Collins lies to the Governor-General. See letter below.
According to Dr Smith providing incontrovertible evidence of fraud and corruption are “over the top claims” He’s been caught and he’s circling the wagons in his ridiculous response to John Adams’ February 13 letter.
Mr Plod replies and has since been sent detailed information only the North Korean government could ignore.
Judith Collins, now Minister of Police, has never replied to any letter. She is a lawyer and unfit to hold public office.
James Miller a board member of both Mighty River Power and the Financial Markets Authority. An outrageous conflict of interest. NZX board  currently Chairman. See Tony Ryall’s unsolicited response.
Others are paying attention
OUT COMES THE WHITEWASH!!
LIKE THE TURITEA “CONSENT” THE NZILA’S CODE OF ETHICS IS NOT WORTH THE PAPER IT’S WRITTEN ON.
ONCE “RENT A JUDGE” KENDERDINE NO LONGER HAD A WARRANT THE BOI CEASED TO EXIST AS SUCH AND WE HAD A GROUP OF RENT SEEKERS, HUDSON INCLUDED, TURNING UP FOR THE NEXT 13 MONTHS LIKE TAME DRUGGED CHOOKS TO COLLECT THEIR “PAY” i.e. “BRIBES.” A LOT OF PEOPLE KNEW WHAT WAS GOING ON.
21 January 2013
A major development arising from the corrupt Turitea Final Decision. Mighty River Power must inform the investing public with specific detail that the Turitea and Puketoi wind farms are right on three of the country’s major fault lines. Turitea is on the Wellington and Northern Ohariu faults and Puketoi is right on the Wairarapa fault
Click to enlarge
PNCC employees beaver away on the ratepayer’s dime to shaft the very people they are meant to serve.
Hudson being held to account – see paragraph 9 in this letter to the New Zealand Institute of Landscape Architects,10 Nov 2012
Letter of complaint to IPENZ – 5 Nov 2012 – IPENZ circled their wagons around commissioner David Bunting and attempted a whitewash, but all they did was “tug on Superman’s cape”
PNCC responds, 30 October 2012 – so do victims pay twice? – let’s see how this plays out – all great due diligence for the inevitable court case and application for future discovery
Email correspondence to the Office of the Auditor General from 24/4/2012
Office of the Controller and Auditor-General
The Office of Controller and Auditor-General is central to ensuring the accountability of the public sector. Part of its role is to look closely at the way the public sector uses its money and to report any corrupt use to Parliament.
The office has 2 units:
- Office of the Auditor-General
- Audit New Zealand.
The Auditor-General independently reports on whether public organisations are behaving financially appropriately and are giving full and accurate accounts of their activities.
The Public Audit Act also gives the Auditor-General significant powers to access information.
These powers ensure there is a high degree of transparency surrounding the use of public money. These transparent arrangements are one of the reasons New Zealand is consistently seen as having low levels of corruption.
Audit New Zealand carries out auditing of all types of public sector organisations. An independent body, it enables domestic and international confidence in the thorough and unbiased investigations of New Zealand’s public sector finances.
Purpose to alert this office to the potential fraud on investors, unaware that Mighty River Power’s wind farms are approved right on earthquake fault lines.
Cost to taxpayers of the Board of Inquiry released under the Official Information Act 26/4/2012
It appears that Shonagh Kenderdine has been paid approximately $400,000 ++ to shaft both Palmerston North and the Tararua District.
By accepting this posted comment the Manawatu Standard has admitted culpability. See comment 4
Earlier Turitea Wind Farm Documents.
The Turitea Wind Farm Final Decision is faulty on numerous levels. Every effort has been made behind the scenes to resolve the issues raised in the correspondence posted here, but these efforts have failed. The Turitea Board of Inquiry and the now retired chair, former Judge, Shonagh Kenderdine, [subsequently proven to be faking judicial authority as a member of the public without a warrant], ignored all submissions relating to these matters, which are now being put in the public arena to bring a resolution. The sell off of SOE’s, in particular Mighty River Power, is bringing these matters into sharp focus.
Each issue is dealt with separately. The correspondence below is between the Environment Court, the Environmental Protection Authority and the office of the Minister for the Environment.
The foundation document for the wind farm is based on fraud. Palmerston North ratepayers have had their rights as property owners cancelled by the formerly secret contract between PNCC and Mighty River Power, which overturns the Local Government Act 2002. This contract is on the MFE website.
The full contract.
The wind farm has been approved on two of the country’s most dangerous fault lines.
See page 10 for Alexander’s seismic “evidence”.
The Board does not ask any questions about the fault lines.
The noise standard for wind farms has been created by the industry itself
Professor Dickinson’s protests released under the OIA.
“Deliberate” errors in the report.
Impact of transmission lines
An unanswered complaint
The Board fails to address issues of spying by Mighty River Power.
The final attempt at a whitewash
Note: Dr Smith mentions only one fault line and avoids the issue of
the contract between PNCC and MRP.
THE FRAUDULENT TURITEA CHANGE OF PURPOSE CONSULTATION DOCUMENT DISTRIBUTED TO PN HOUSEHOLDS IN AUGUST 2006 AND WHICH HAS DISAPPEARED FROM THE WEB. FORTUNATELY WE SAVED A COPY AND YOU CAN ACCESS IT HERE.
Additional information: Link to RadioLive interview in which CEO Douglas Heffernan lies about the size of the Turitea Wind Farm.
The New Zealand Green Party strongly opposes the Turitea wind farm,
There has been a huge volume of correspondence relating to the deliberate negligence and poor conduct by Kenderdine and her board members. Here is just a sample of this correspondence, which has been ignored.
Kenderdine literally believes the world will end around 2040
Google helps to hide Kenderdine’s corrupt decision. A Google search for Shonagh Kenderdine produces this result – what a pathetic shielding of this arrogant, money grubbing, anti democratic tosser.
This Google search produces this result. The NZ Govt hard at work covering up.
20 Jun 2012 … A stunning development in this saga of corruption and fraud, Shonagh
Kenderdine was all along pretending to be an authorised judge with a …
Joseph Poff stands for Horizons. His self serving statements as a candidate are evidence of how destructive the Turitea wind farm fraud, with which he has been intimately involved, has impacted the community. He claims to have no conflict of interest – pull the other one, Joseph! This has been saved in case it “disappears”.
document has been denied. No surprise as to why.
PNCC documents deleted but retrieved from the internet archive – all part of the elaborate fraud.
All buildings in Palmerston North as identified in accordance with the Building Act 2004 and constructed pre 1976,
or as otherwise identified by Council (e.g. processing of applications) are to be assessed.
16-sept-directions-from-judge page 14 no noise conditions for Tararua
There are important points to be made about this presentation.
- The workshop was held just 10 days before submissions closed. Why? Slides 1 and 2
- Wide community participation sought, (well that’s interesting! When, exactly?) – so the blame for a poor outcome will then rest with the Board of Enquiry, and not PNCC – no community participation has been encouraged until now. Why? Slide 3
- Most significant resource consent application concerning Palmerston North’s environment in 50 years or more . . . .! Why has this stunning statement been made just 10 days out from the closing of submissions? Slide 4
- “Decision makers take notice of community views” The track record of many consent hearings to date, show the complete opposite. The Council for reasons already discussed handed over the city to a commercial arm of the Government. Did PNCC fail to exhibit duty of care by believing that it could pass the responsibility of its partnership with MRP on to RMA Commissioners? Slide 8
- The contract with MRP had been signed and money paid before the change of purpose submissions even opened. This does not sit well with my idea of what I consider to be either just or fair. PNCC’s wind farm analysis has never been made public. Slide 35
- The proponents and beneficiaries of this scheme have been in collaboration from the start, a courtesy that was not extended to other nearby residents who would potentially be affected. Only at the eleventh hour are residents urged to “collaborate,” by PNCC after being previously ignored misled and dragged into the courtroom.. Slide 60 00
The London School of Economics survey of house prices affected by wind farms February 2014
Wind turbines are slashing the value of homes built nearby, according to a new study into the impact of the large structures on property prices.
The study, by the London School of Economics (LSE), reviewed more than a million homes within close proximity of large wind farms over a 12-year period, finding that their property values fell by 11 per cent.
The report’s author, Professor Steve Gibbons, Director of LSE’s Spatial Economics Research Centre, told the the Daily Mail: “Property prices are going up in places where they’re not visible and down in the places where they are.”
Price manipulating behind the scenes yet again
Karen is recognised as a leader in climate change issues internationally. In 1991 she was part of the NZ delegation to the IPCC negotiations having written a master’s thesis on climate change issues and the dynamics of international negotiations
day-1-hearing-schedule Heffernan lies
day-4-hearing-schedule Alexander and earthquakes
day-8-hearing-schedule Landscape report kept from submitters, MOU asked for and withheld
evidence-of-mac-henry See page 30
Submissions on the Draft Decision
Helen Clark opens Price’s law firm
Price Clark Cunliffe ChanceryGreen and comments
Kenderdine gets her “gong”
He shook the hand of a fraud and knew it.
Puketoi David Kirkpatrick see page 15 re Stichbury & Adams
propertyrightsdoyouhaveany David Kirk
Heffernan passes Go and collects $500,000
Photo of Cunliffe’s children whom he claimed in Parliament would become extinct due to climate change. He made this outrageous claim in support of his wife’s carbon trading business when the ETS was not extended.
Give us the money or our children die!
All submissions were deleted from the MFE website when a complaint against Karen Price was lodged with the NZ Law Society
Check the dates for what you are searching for from the website above
The internet archive has them all.
Dr David Black shill for the wind farm industry – Turitea, Motorimu etc – mercilessly exposed.
Extra resources for investigative journalists – should this extinct species ever revive.
Puketoi David Kirkpatrick (1) see page 15 Kirkpatrick now an Environment Court Judge knew Kenderdine was not a judge with the power to issue the Turitea consent
Someone smelt a rat
Evidence that on Government instructions Google deleted palmerstonnorth.blogspot in 2010. This was illegal and after about a month Google thought better and the blog was reinstated.
Saved on the internet archive!
Back up LINK
Councillor who knew full well that submitters to the change of purpose to the Turitea Reserve were subject to a corrupt and secret contract between MRP and PNCC does his best to cover his involvement
One term Mayor Heather Tanguay and wind farm advocate [left]takes a welcome break from settling Islamic migrants from the Middle East
IWI INVOLVEMENT IN THE FRAUD
Wiremu Te Awe Awe below [left] negotiated what is rumoured to be a multi million dollar payout from Mighty River Power on behalf of Rangitane and Rangiotu Marae as beneficiaries. In effect the local iwi secretly sold the Tararua ranges back to the government so they could plaster it with wind turbines. It’s the Taniwha principle at work. The memorandum between the parties involved was cited as evidence. Kenderdine was asked for it at the Turitea Call-In hearings but it was withheld, and the request ignored. Other Maori voiced their disappointment that they were left out of this bonanza .
Next to Te Awe Awe is Prime Minister John Key. Many of the emails sent to the principal players in the Turitea fraud were also copied to him and ignored.
Next to Key on the right is Jono Naylor, National list MP who as Palmerston North Mayor at the meeting approving the change of purpose to the Turitea Reserve said “There’s gold in them thar hills”
The photo is of Te Awe Awe blessing a Rescue helicopter.
“Rangitane descendant Peter Te Rangi said he was concerned Mighty River Power had considered a Maori perspective on the issue too narrowly.
While Mighty River Power had signed a memorandum of understanding with Rangitane, it had not given the same attention to other iwi.
Tribes such as Ngati Apa also had a deep association with the Turitea range, he said.”
Wind farmer Joseph Poff who stood for Council despite an illegal conflict of interest [and was soundly defeated] rails against opponents of the Turitea wind farm.
The Secret Commissions Act plus evidence
Note: to the persistent visitor from the Philippines [84 this year alone]. Today, 15 August 2016, you revealed your true purpose is to help cover Shonagh Kenderdine’s corruption and fraud. Like Hillary Clinton you left an electronic trail a mile wide.
After the Philippine “visitor” is outed Google pointlessly prevents access to the stats page. How pathetic.
MinterEllisonRuddWatts and its spawn
1/ Karen Price 2002 – 2007
2/ Les Taylor 2002 – 2007 [Price’s lawyer at the LCRO – Legal Complaints Review Office]
3/ Sir David Gascoigne currently Consultant
Page saved here
They try to delete Gascoigne’s association with MinterEllisonRuddWatts as a consultant. [refresh the page to see it]
Gascoigne was chairman and director of Transpower 2000 – 2007 and fully conversant with the secret wind farm plans.
Gascoigne was the independent reviewer, 2009-2013, 2015 of the Auditor-General’s audit allocation process. NB: when approached over the fraud the Auditor-General refused to cooperate.
NB Gascoigne who was Judicial Conduct Commissioner is married to Patsy Reddy the Governor General who just prior to taking office recommended expanding the GCSB’s powers to spy on all New Zealanders. Reddy also worked with Gascoigne at the law firm Watts and Patterson which became MinterEllisonRuddWatts in 2001.
Gascoigne with some of his badge collection
By Schwede66 – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=56499762
NOVEMBER 1 2017
JANUARY 29 2018
JANUARY 30 2018
https://web.archive.org/web/20180407150142/https://www.pncc.govt.nz/yourcouncil/consultations/review-of-resource-consent-conditions-for-te-rere-hau-windfarm/ See Bill Hardings excellent correspondence – last pdf
This has been a multi-year fight. Motorimu was the first assault on our property. We found out that the company which went bankrupt was going to use secondhand turbines. I was told I would be grilled by the Motorimu lawyers as others were but this did not happen. They had no answer to my submission containing factual information about the global warming scam. Of course, Karen Price was a player at Motorimu. She was the one who let the cat out of the bag telling Helen Harker that worn out secondhand turbines would be used. She thought it was a joke. MRP went on to buy the consent and will expand Turitea into the area outside the fake consented Turitea footprint to the South.